Difference between revisions of "NEUM"

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'''Etymology'''
 
'''Etymology'''
  
Perhaps short for ''nēʾūm-YHWH'' “declaration of Yahweh” ([[Septuaginta. Alfred Rahlfs, ed. 8th ed. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1965.|LXX]] Greek ''legei kyrios''), which is part of the oracle formula common to Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.<ref>A. Hill, ''Malachi'', Anchor Bible 25D (Yale Univ. Press/Doubleday, 1998), 150.</ref> So, this may be taken from [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''nēʾūm'' (''naʾim'', ''noʾem'') "visionary utterance; decree" ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/22.16?lang=eng#15 Genesis 22:16]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/num/24.3-4,%2015-16?lang=eng#2 Numbers 24:3-4, 15-16]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-sam/23.1?lang=eng#primary 2 Samuel 23:1a]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/prov/30.1?lang=eng#primary Proverbs 30:1]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ps/36.2?lang=eng#1 Psalm 36:2]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ezek/36.23?lang=eng#22 Ezekiel 36:23]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/zech/12.1?lang=eng#primary Zechariah 12:1]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/mal/2.1?lang=eng#primary Malachi 2:1]).<ref>H. Kosmala, in ''Vetus Testamentum'', 14/3 (1964):428,431-432.</ref> It is normally restricted to divine speech. However, the Tannaim used it with human speech ([[Talmud Babli Babylonian Talmud|TB]] ''Yebamot'' 12:11), and use with human speech was originally a North Israelite feature.<ref>Gary Rendsburg, “Hebrew Philological Notes (1),” ''Hebrew Studies'', 40 (1999):29-30.</ref>
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The [[Personal Name|PN]] '''N<small>EUM</small>''' may perhaps be a shortened form of ''nĕʾūm-YHWH'', “declaration of Yahweh” (= LXX Greek ''legei kyrios''), which is part of the oracle formula common to Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.<ref>[[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']].</ref> This, in its own turn, may be from the [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''nĕʾūm'' “visionary utterance; decree” ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/22.16?lang=eng#15 Genesis 22:16]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/num/24.3-4,%2015-16?lang=eng#2 Numbers 24:3-4, 15-16]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-sam/23.1?lang=eng#primary 2 Samuel 23:1a]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/prov/30.1?lang=eng#primary Proverbs 30:1]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ps/36.2?lang=eng#1 Psalm 36:2]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ezek/36.23?lang=eng#22 Ezekiel 36:23]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/zech/12.1?lang=eng#primary Zechariah 12:1]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/mal/2.1?lang=eng#primary Malachi 2:1]).<ref>H. Kosmala, in Vetus Testamentum 14/3 (1964): 428, 431-32.</ref> It is normally restricted to divine speech. However, the Tannaim used it with human speech ([[Talmud Babli Babylonian Talmud|TB]] ''Yebamot'' 12:11), and use with human speech was originally a North Israelite feature.<ref>Gary Rendsburg, “Hebrew Philological Notes (1),” ''Hebrew Studies'' 40 (1999): 29-30.</ref>
  
However, as for the supposed name [[MALACHI|M<small>ALACHI</small>]] “My-messenger,”<ref>A. Hill, ''Malachi'', Anchor Bible 25D (Yale Univ. Press/Doubleday, 1998), 135-136; Hill, “Malachi, book of,” in Freedman, ed., [[David Freedman, ed. Anchor Bible Dictionary. 6 vols. N.Y.: Doubleday, 1992.|''ABD'']], IV:478.</ref> there may be an erroneous assumption here that a name is meant, when “according to the words of Neum” ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/1-ne/19.10?lang=eng#9 1 Nephi 19:10]) might be equivalent to [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''kidĕbar nēʾūm'', or ''kĕdibrēy nēʾūm'' “according to the words of prophecy,” which is similar to a frequently used biblical formula ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/44.2?lang=eng#1 Genesis 44:2]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ex/8.9?lang=eng#8 Exodus 8:9]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/lev/10.7?lang=eng#6 Leviticus 10:7]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-kgs/2.22?lang=eng#21 2 Kings 2:22]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-kgs/5.14?lang=eng#13 5:14]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/jer/13.2?lang=eng#1 Jeremiah 13:2];  [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/jer/32.8?lang=eng#7 32:8]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/hag/2.4?lang=eng#3 Haggai 2:4]).
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However, as with the supposed name Malachi “My-messenger,”<ref>A. Hill, ''Malachi'' (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press/New York: Doubleday, 1998), 135-36.</ref> there may be an erroneous assumption here that a [[Personal Name|PN]] is meant. The phrase, “according to the words of '''N<small>EUM</small>'''” ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/1-ne/19.10?lang=eng#9 1 Nephi 19:10]) might be equivalent to [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''kidĕbar nēʾūm'', or ''kĕdibrēy nēʾūm'' “according to the words of prophecy,” which is similar to a frequently used biblical formula ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/44.2?lang=eng#1 Genesis 44:2]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ex/8.9?lang=eng#8 Exodus 8:9]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/lev/10.7?lang=eng#6 Leviticus 10:7]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-kgs/2.22?lang=eng#21 2 Kings 2:22]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-kgs/5.14?lang=eng#13 5:14]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/jer/13.2?lang=eng#1 Jeremiah 13:2];  [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/jer/32.8?lang=eng#7 32:8]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/hag/2.4?lang=eng#3 Haggai 2:4]).
  
Or, less likely, the closely collocated [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] term, ''naʿim'' “bard; priestly meistersinger” ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-sam/23.1?lang=eng#primary 2 Samuel 23:1b]; cf. [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-kgs/3.15?lang=eng#14 2 Kings 3:15]) = Greek ''aoidos'' "bard, oral-poet, composer-singer"; cf. Ugaritic ''nʿm'' “bard,” and Arabic ''nģm'' "sing," ''naģmat'' "melody."<ref>F. M. Cross, ''From Epic to Canon'', 140, citing Ugaritic [[Corpus des tablettes en cunéiformes alphabétiques: découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929 à 1939|CTA]] 3.1.19, and [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/1-chr/25.7?lang=eng#6 1 Chronicles 25:7], where the High Priest is the Meistersinger; Cross, “Toward a History of Hebrew Prosody,” in ''Fortunate the Eyes That See'', eds. Beck, Bartelt, Raabe, and Francke, 302-303 (as in [[Corpus des tablettes en cunéiformes alphabétiques: découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929 à 1939|CTA]] 3.1.19); see also D. N. Freedman, ''Pottery, Poetry, and Prophecy: Studies in Early Hebrew Poetry''.</ref>
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Or, less likely, the closely collocated [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] term, ''naʿim'' “bard; priestly meistersinger” ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-sam/23.1?lang=eng#primary 2 Samuel 23:1b]; cf. [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/2-kgs/3.15?lang=eng#14 2 Kings 3:15]) = Greek ''aoidos'' “bard, oral-poet, composer-singer”; cf. Ugaritic ''nʿm'' “bard,” and Arabic ''nģm'' “sing,''naģmat'' “melody.<ref>F. M. Cross, ''From Epic to Canon'', 140, citing Ugaritic [[Corpus des tablettes en cunéiformes alphabétiques: découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929 à 1939|CTA]] 3.1.19, and [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/1-chr/25.7?lang=eng#6 1 Chronicles 25:7], where the High Priest is the Meistersinger; Cross, “Toward a History of Hebrew Prosody,” in ''Fortunate the Eyes That See'', eds. Beck, Bartelt, Raabe, and Francke, 302-303 (as in [[Corpus des tablettes en cunéiformes alphabétiques: découvertes à Ras Shamra-Ugarit de 1929 à 1939|CTA]] 3.1.19); see also D. N. Freedman, ''Pottery, Poetry, and Prophecy: Studies in Early Hebrew Poetry'' (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1980).</ref>
  
 
See [[JENEUM|J<small>ENEUM</small>]] / [[JONEUM|J<small>ONEUM</small>]], [[MALACHI|M<small>ALACHI</small>]], [[NAHOM|N<small>AHOM</small>]].
 
See [[JENEUM|J<small>ENEUM</small>]] / [[JONEUM|J<small>ONEUM</small>]], [[MALACHI|M<small>ALACHI</small>]], [[NAHOM|N<small>AHOM</small>]].

Revision as of 22:05, 22 September 2015

Brass Plates PN 1. A non-biblical ISRAELITE prophet (1 Nephi 19:10)

Etymology

The PN NEUM may perhaps be a shortened form of nĕʾūm-YHWH, “declaration of Yahweh” (= LXX Greek legei kyrios), which is part of the oracle formula common to Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.[1] This, in its own turn, may be from the HEBREW nĕʾūm “visionary utterance; decree” (Genesis 22:16; Numbers 24:3-4, 15-16; 2 Samuel 23:1a; Proverbs 30:1; Psalm 36:2; Ezekiel 36:23; Zechariah 12:1; Malachi 2:1).[2] It is normally restricted to divine speech. However, the Tannaim used it with human speech (TB Yebamot 12:11), and use with human speech was originally a North Israelite feature.[3]

However, as with the supposed name Malachi “My-messenger,”[4] there may be an erroneous assumption here that a PN is meant. The phrase, “according to the words of NEUM” (1 Nephi 19:10) might be equivalent to HEBREW kidĕbar nēʾūm, or kĕdibrēy nēʾūm “according to the words of prophecy,” which is similar to a frequently used biblical formula (Genesis 44:2; Exodus 8:9; Leviticus 10:7; 2 Kings 2:22; 5:14; Jeremiah 13:2; 32:8; Haggai 2:4).

Or, less likely, the closely collocated HEBREW term, naʿim “bard; priestly meistersinger” (2 Samuel 23:1b; cf. 2 Kings 3:15) = Greek aoidos “bard, oral-poet, composer-singer”; cf. Ugaritic nʿm “bard,” and Arabic nģm “sing,” naģmat “melody.”[5]

See JENEUM / JONEUM, MALACHI, NAHOM.

RFS

Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐤𐐀𐐊𐐣 (niːʌm)

Notes


  1. HALOT.
  2. H. Kosmala, in Vetus Testamentum 14/3 (1964): 428, 431-32.
  3. Gary Rendsburg, “Hebrew Philological Notes (1),” Hebrew Studies 40 (1999): 29-30.
  4. A. Hill, Malachi (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press/New York: Doubleday, 1998), 135-36.
  5. F. M. Cross, From Epic to Canon, 140, citing Ugaritic CTA 3.1.19, and 1 Chronicles 25:7, where the High Priest is the Meistersinger; Cross, “Toward a History of Hebrew Prosody,” in Fortunate the Eyes That See, eds. Beck, Bartelt, Raabe, and Francke, 302-303 (as in CTA 3.1.19); see also D. N. Freedman, Pottery, Poetry, and Prophecy: Studies in Early Hebrew Poetry (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1980).

Bibliography


Cross, Frank Moore, Jr. “Toward a History of Hebrew Prosody,” in Fortunate the Eyes That See: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman in Celebration of His Seventieth Birthday, eds. A. Beck, A. Bartelt, P. Raabe, and C. Francke, 298-309. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

Cross, Frank Moore, Jr. From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1998.

Freedman, David Noel. Pottery, Poetry, and Prophecy: Studies in Early Hebrew Poetry. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1980.

Kosmala, Hans. “Form and Structure in Ancient Hebrew Poetry (A New Approach),” Vetus Testamentum 14/3 (Oct 1964):423-445.

Rendsburg, Gary, “Hebrew Philological Notes (1),” Hebrew Studies 40 (1999):28-32.