Difference between revisions of "NEAS"

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'''This entry is not finished'''
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'''Etymology'''
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NEAS
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Lehite common noun Food plant listed along with SHEUM and seeds of corn, barley, wheat, and various unspecified fruits (Mosiah 9:9).
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Perhaps a [[JAEDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] carryover, like [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]], which see.  Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ''ás'', “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian ''áš'', ''aś'', ''ás'', ''áz'', ''áṣ'' (<sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ/ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”<ref>Borger, ''Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', 548, noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = ''kunāšu'' “emmer”; cf. von Soden, ''AHw'', 506  (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; CAD, “A,” I/II:234a).</ref> – used, for example, in <sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), ''asnan'',<ref>Black, George, and Postgate, ''Concise Dictionary of Akkadian'', 28; CAD, “A,” I/II:450-452.</ref> and in A.ŠA, ''aš-šum'' “field” (= GÁN).<ref>Von Soden, ''AHw'', I:85 mB/mA ''ašû'' IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1, ''Sumerisches Lautwerte'', 1:22; 2:607.</ref>
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Cf. Old & Late Babylonian ''nušû'', ''nešu'', a plant of some sort (PYH).<ref>Von Soden, ''AHw'', II:806; ''CAD'', “N,” 11, part II:355.</ref>
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Cf. also Akkadian ''eša'' (A.TIR) as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.<ref>Owen & Young, ''JCS'', 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “''eša''-flour”; Borger, ''ML'', 839.</ref>
  
'''Etymology'''
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PYH suggests that it might have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),<ref>Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070820122541.htm , and www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616133940.htm ).</ref> chile, or other grains or food plants native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.
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Benjamin Urrutia suggested ''nys'' “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.<ref>J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.</ref>  However, he may have intended Demotic ''Зmys'' “anise; dill”<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, ''KHw'', 36.</ref> > Copt. ''emise'', ''amici''; Greek ''anēthon'', ''anison'' > Latin ''anisum''.<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, ''KHw'', 36.</ref>
  
No etymology is suggested. A semitic root such as ''nās/ṣ/š/ś/z'', ''na ’s/ṣ/š/ś/z'' or ''na ‘s/ṣ/š/ś/z'' would be the likely source. On the other hand, this noun may be borrowed
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Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear ''Jaredite'' names indicates long cultural overlap” with the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITES</small>]] or people of [[ZARAHEMLA|Z<small>ARAHEMLA</small>]].<ref>Nibley, ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'' (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V (FARMS/Deseret, 1988):246.</ref>
into Lehite from a native indigenous vocabel. The fact that Joseph Smith did not translate the word means that he did not have or was not aware of a suitable English
 
translation. This would seem to exclude potato, tomato, pepper, etc., indigenous American plants, and, depending on New England agricultural practices, the Old World
 
grain emmer.  
 
  
All the proffered suggestions are highly questionable: Late Babylonian ''*nušû(m)'', ''nešu'', a plant of some sort; Late Babylonian ''*kaš nāšu'', a kind of beer (i.e., fermented from
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See [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]].
some cereal product, like malt). Akkadian ''*na’ṣu'', ''nāṣu'', “chew; in the mouth,” used with “root” and “cedar-wood,” so that '''NEAS''' might be a tuber of some sort. These
 
etymological possibilities suggest that the word is a [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] borrowing ([[Robert F. Smith|RFS]]). Equally questionable is [[EGYPTIAN(S)|E<small>GYPTIAN</small>]] n, “belonging to” and is, “old, ancient,” i.e., “that which is
 
ancient” ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]).  
 
  
 
Cf. Book of Mormon [[NEUM|N<small>EUM</small>]]
 
Cf. Book of Mormon [[NEUM|N<small>EUM</small>]]
  
 
See also [[Neas Variants]]
 
See also [[Neas Variants]]
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==Bibliography==
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Black, J., A. George, and N. Postgate, eds. ''A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian''.  Wiesbaden:
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Harrassowitz, 2000.
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Borger, Rykle.  ''Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', AOAT 305.  Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2004.
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''CAD'' – ''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'' = ''Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the
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Univ. of Chicago''.  Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.
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Deimel, Anton.  ''Šumerisches Lexikon'', 6 vols.  Rome: PBI, 1928.
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Ellermeier, Friedrich.  ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1: ''Sumerische Lautwerte'', 1 & 2.  Göttingen:
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F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.
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Nibley, Hugh W.  ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'', 1<sup>st</sup> ed. (1952) = ''Collected Works of Hugh Nibley'' V.  Provo: FARMS/SLC: Deseret Book, 1988.
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Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young.  “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library,
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Boston,” ''Journal of Cuneiform Studies'', 23/4 (1971):95-115.
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von Soden, Wolfram.  ''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'', 3 vols.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,
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1965-1981.  ''AHw''
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<div style="text-align: right;">[[Robert F. Smith|RFS]] </div>
  
 
'''Variants'''
 
'''Variants'''
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[[Neas Variants]]
  
 
'''[[Deseret Alphabet]]:''' 𐐤𐐀𐐈𐐞
 
'''[[Deseret Alphabet]]:''' 𐐤𐐀𐐈𐐞

Revision as of 15:00, 6 June 2013

Lehite noun 1. A cultivated plant (Mosiah 9:9)

Etymology

NEAS

Lehite common noun Food plant listed along with SHEUM and seeds of corn, barley, wheat, and various unspecified fruits (Mosiah 9:9).

Perhaps a JAREDITE carryover, like SHEUM, which see. Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ás, “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian áš, , ás, áz, áṣ (úÁŠ/ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”[1] – used, for example, in úÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), asnan,[2] and in A.ŠA, aš-šum “field” (= GÁN).[3]

Cf. Old & Late Babylonian nušû, nešu, a plant of some sort (PYH).[4]

Cf. also Akkadian eša (A.TIR) as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.[5]

PYH suggests that it might have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),[6] chile, or other grains or food plants native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.

Benjamin Urrutia suggested nys “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.[7] However, he may have intended Demotic Зmys “anise; dill”[8] > Copt. emise, amici; Greek anēthon, anison > Latin anisum.[9]

Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear Jaredite names indicates long cultural overlap” with the NEPHITES or people of ZARAHEMLA.[10]

See SHEUM.

Cf. Book of Mormon NEUM

See also Neas Variants

Bibliography

Black, J., A. George, and N. Postgate, eds. A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000.

Borger, Rykle. Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon, AOAT 305. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2004.

CADChicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.

Deimel, Anton. Šumerisches Lexikon, 6 vols. Rome: PBI, 1928.

Ellermeier, Friedrich. Sumerisches Glossar, I/1: Sumerische Lautwerte, 1 & 2. Göttingen: F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.

Nibley, Hugh W. Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites, 1st ed. (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley V. Provo: FARMS/SLC: Deseret Book, 1988.

Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young. “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library, Boston,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 23/4 (1971):95-115.

von Soden, Wolfram. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965-1981. AHw

RFS

Variants

Neas Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐤𐐀𐐈𐐞

Notes


  1. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon, 548, noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = kunāšu “emmer”; cf. von Soden, AHw, 506 (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; CAD, “A,” I/II:234a).
  2. Black, George, and Postgate, Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, 28; CAD, “A,” I/II:450-452.
  3. Von Soden, AHw, I:85 mB/mA ašû IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, Sumerisches Glossar, I/1, Sumerisches Lautwerte, 1:22; 2:607.
  4. Von Soden, AHw, II:806; CAD, “N,” 11, part II:355.
  5. Owen & Young, JCS, 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “eša-flour”; Borger, ML, 839.
  6. Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070820122541.htm , and www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616133940.htm ).
  7. J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.
  8. Černý, Coptic Etym. 35; Westendorf, KHw, 36.
  9. Černý, Coptic Etym. 35; Westendorf, KHw, 36.
  10. Nibley, Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V (FARMS/Deseret, 1988):246.