Difference between revisions of "NEAS"

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'''Etymology'''
 
'''Etymology'''
  
Perhaps a [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] carryover, like [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]], which see.  Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ''ás'', “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian ''áš'', ''aś'', ''ás'', ''áz'', ''áṣ'' (<sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ/ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”<ref>Borger, ''Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', 548, noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = ''kunāšu'' “emmer”; cf. von Soden, ''AHw'', 506  (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; ''CAD'', “A,” I/II:234a).</ref> – used, for example, in <sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), ''asnan'',<ref>Black, George, and Postgate, ''Concise Dictionary of Akkadian'', 28; ''CAD'', “A,” I/II:450-452.</ref> and in A.ŠA, ''aš-šum'' “field” (= GÁN).<ref>Von Soden, ''AHw'', I:85 mB/mA ''ašû'' IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1, ''Sumerisches Lautwerte'', 1:22; 2:607.</ref>
+
Perhaps a [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] carryover, like [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]], which see.  Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ''ás'', “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian ''áš'', ''aś'', ''ás'', ''áz'', ''áṣ'' (<sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ/ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”<ref>Borger, ''Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', 548, noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = ''kunāšu'' “emmer”; cf. von Soden, [[Abbreviations|''AHw'']], 506  (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; [[Abbreviations|''CAD'']], “A,” I/II:234a).</ref> – used, for example, in <sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), ''asnan'',<ref>Black, George, and Postgate, ''Concise Dictionary of Akkadian'', 28; [[Abbreviations|''CAD'']], “A,” I/II:450-452.</ref> and in A.ŠA, ''aš-šum'' “field” (= GÁN).<ref>Von Soden, [[Abbreviations|''AHw'']], I:85 mB/mA ''ašû'' IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1, ''Sumerisches Lautwerte'', 1:22; 2:607.</ref>
  
Cf. Old & Late Babylonian ''nušû'', ''nešu'', a plant of some sort ([[Paul Y. Hoskisson|PYH]]).<ref>Von Soden, ''AHw'', II:806; ''CAD'', “N,” 11, part II:355.</ref>
+
Cf. Old & Late Babylonian ''nušû'', ''nešu'', a plant of some sort ([[Paul Y. Hoskisson|PYH]]).<ref>Von Soden, [[Abbreviations|''AHw'']], II:806; [[Abbreviations|''CAD'']], “N,” 11, part II:355.</ref>
  
Cf. also Akkadian ''eša'' (A.TIR) as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.<ref>Owen & Young, ''JCS'', 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “''eša''-flour”; Borger, ''ML'', 839.</ref>
+
Cf. also Akkadian ''eša'' (A.TIR) as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.<ref>Owen & Young, [[Abbreviations|''JCS'']], 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “''eša''-flour”; Borger, [[Abbreviations|''ML'']], 839.</ref>
  
 
PYH suggests that it might have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),<ref>Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070820122541.htm , and www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616133940.htm ).</ref> chile, or other grains or food plants native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.
 
PYH suggests that it might have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),<ref>Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070820122541.htm , and www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616133940.htm ).</ref> chile, or other grains or food plants native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.
  
Benjamin Urrutia suggested ''nys'' “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.<ref>J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.</ref>  However, he may have intended Demotic ''Зmys'' “anise; dill”<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, ''KHw'', 36.</ref> > Copt. ''emise'', ''amici''; Greek ''anēthon'', ''anison'' > Latin ''anisum''.<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, ''KHw'', 36.</ref>
+
Benjamin Urrutia suggested ''nys'' “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.<ref>J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.</ref>  However, he may have intended Demotic ''Зmys'' “anise; dill”<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, [[Abbreviations|''KHw'']], 36.</ref> > Copt. ''emise'', ''amici''; Greek ''anēthon'', ''anison'' > Latin ''anisum''.<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, [[Abbreviations|''KHw'']], 36.</ref>
  
Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear ''Jaredite'' names indicates long cultural overlap” with the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITES</small>]] or people of [[ZARAHEMLA|Z<small>ARAHEMLA</small>]].<ref>Nibley, ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'' (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V (FARMS/Deseret, 1988):246.</ref>
+
Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear ''Jaredite'' names indicates long cultural overlap” with the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITES</small>]] or people of [[ZARAHEMLA|Z<small>ARAHEMLA</small>]].<ref>Nibley, ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'' (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V ([[Abbreviations|FARMS]]/Deseret, 1988):246.</ref>
  
 
See [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]].
 
See [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]].
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Harrassowitz, 2000.
 
Harrassowitz, 2000.
  
Borger, Rykle.  ''Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', AOAT 305.  Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2004.
+
Borger, Rykle.  ''Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', [[Abbreviations|AOAT]] 305.  Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2004.
  
''CAD'' – ''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'' = ''Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the
+
[[Abbreviations|''CAD'']] – ''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'' = ''Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the
 
Univ. of Chicago''.  Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.
 
Univ. of Chicago''.  Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.
  
Deimel, Anton.  ''Šumerisches Lexikon'', 6 vols.  Rome: PBI, 1928.
+
Deimel, Anton.  ''Šumerisches Lexikon'', 6 vols.  Rome: [[Abbreviations|PBI]], 1928.
  
 
Ellermeier, Friedrich.  ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1: ''Sumerische Lautwerte'', 1 & 2.  Göttingen:
 
Ellermeier, Friedrich.  ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1: ''Sumerische Lautwerte'', 1 & 2.  Göttingen:
 
F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.
 
F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.
  
Nibley, Hugh W.  ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'', 1<sup>st</sup> ed. (1952) = ''Collected Works of Hugh Nibley'' V.  Provo: FARMS/SLC: Deseret Book, 1988.
+
Nibley, Hugh W.  ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'', 1<sup>st</sup> ed. (1952) = ''Collected Works of Hugh Nibley'' V.  Provo: [[Abbreviations|FARMS]]/SLC: Deseret Book, 1988.
  
 
Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young.  “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library,
 
Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young.  “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library,
Line 56: Line 56:
  
 
von Soden, Wolfram.  ''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'', 3 vols.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,
 
von Soden, Wolfram.  ''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'', 3 vols.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,
1965-1981.  ''AHw''
+
1965-1981.  [[Abbreviations|''AHw'']]
  
 
<div style="text-align: right;">[[Robert F. Smith|RFS]] </div>
 
<div style="text-align: right;">[[Robert F. Smith|RFS]] </div>

Revision as of 19:02, 12 March 2014

Lehite noun 1. Food plant listed along with SHEUM and seeds of corn, barley, wheat, and various unspecified fruits (Mosiah 9:9)

Etymology

Perhaps a JAREDITE carryover, like SHEUM, which see. Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ás, “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian áš, , ás, áz, áṣ (úÁŠ/ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”[1] – used, for example, in úÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), asnan,[2] and in A.ŠA, aš-šum “field” (= GÁN).[3]

Cf. Old & Late Babylonian nušû, nešu, a plant of some sort (PYH).[4]

Cf. also Akkadian eša (A.TIR) as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.[5]

PYH suggests that it might have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),[6] chile, or other grains or food plants native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.

Benjamin Urrutia suggested nys “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.[7] However, he may have intended Demotic Зmys “anise; dill”[8] > Copt. emise, amici; Greek anēthon, anison > Latin anisum.[9]

Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear Jaredite names indicates long cultural overlap” with the NEPHITES or people of ZARAHEMLA.[10]

See SHEUM.

Cf. Book of Mormon NEUM

See also Neas Variants

Variants

Neas Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐤𐐀𐐈𐐞 (niːæz)

Notes

  1. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon, 548, noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = kunāšu “emmer”; cf. von Soden, AHw, 506 (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; CAD, “A,” I/II:234a).
  2. Black, George, and Postgate, Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, 28; CAD, “A,” I/II:450-452.
  3. Von Soden, AHw, I:85 mB/mA ašû IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, Sumerisches Glossar, I/1, Sumerisches Lautwerte, 1:22; 2:607.
  4. Von Soden, AHw, II:806; CAD, “N,” 11, part II:355.
  5. Owen & Young, JCS, 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “eša-flour”; Borger, ML, 839.
  6. Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption (www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070820122541.htm , and www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616133940.htm ).
  7. J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.
  8. Černý, Coptic Etym. 35; Westendorf, KHw, 36.
  9. Černý, Coptic Etym. 35; Westendorf, KHw, 36.
  10. Nibley, Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V (FARMS/Deseret, 1988):246.

Bibliography

Black, J., A. George, and N. Postgate, eds. A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000.

Borger, Rykle. Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon, AOAT 305. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2004.

CADChicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.

Deimel, Anton. Šumerisches Lexikon, 6 vols. Rome: PBI, 1928.

Ellermeier, Friedrich. Sumerisches Glossar, I/1: Sumerische Lautwerte, 1 & 2. Göttingen: F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.

Nibley, Hugh W. Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites, 1st ed. (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley V. Provo: FARMS/SLC: Deseret Book, 1988.

Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young. “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library, Boston,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 23/4 (1971):95-115.

von Soden, Wolfram. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965-1981. AHw

RFS