Difference between revisions of "NEAS"

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|'''[[:Category:Lehite noun|Lehite noun]]'''
 
|'''[[:Category:Lehite noun|Lehite noun]]'''
 
|1.
 
|1.
|A cultivated plant ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/mosiah/9.9?lang=eng#8 Mosiah 9:9])
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|Food plant listed along with [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]] and seeds of corn, barley, wheat, and various unspecified fruits ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/mosiah/9.9?lang=eng#8 Mosiah 9:9])
 
|}
 
|}
  
'''This entry is not finished'''
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'''Etymology'''
  
'''Etymology'''
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John Sorenson has made the most likely suggestion, that NEAS is the same as Mixe ''nij'' “chili-pepper,”<ref>Sorenson, ''Mormon’s Codex'', 306 n. 8.</ref>  which aligns with Paul Hoskisson’s notion that NEAS may have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of huauzontle, chia, teosinte, quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),<ref>Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070820122541.htm "First Ancient Manioc Fields in America Discovered"] , and [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616133940.htm  "Maya Intensively Cultivated Manioc 1,400 Years Ago"].</ref> or other grain or food plant native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.<ref>Sorenson, ''Mormon’s Codex'', 305; indeed, Sorenson notes that Hebrew ''pôl'' “bean,” ought to be compared to Maya ''bol'', ''buul'' “bean” (306).</ref>
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And thus, perhaps a [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] carryover (like [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]], which see).  Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ''ás'', “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian ''áš'', ''aś'', ''ás'', ''áz'', ''áṣ'' (<sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ/ ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”<ref>[[Rykle Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon. 2nd ed. AOAT 305. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010.|''Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexicon'']] no. 548 (p. 361), noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = ''kunāšu'' “emmer”; cf. von Soden, [[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'']], 506  (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; [[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'']], “A,” I/II:234a).</ref> – used, for example, in <sup>ú</sup>ÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), ''asnan'',<ref>Black, George, and Postgate, ''Concise Dictionary of Akkadian'', 28; [[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'']], “A,” I/II:450-452.</ref> and in A.ŠA, ''aš-šum'' “field” (= GÁN).<ref>Von Soden, [[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'']], I:85 mB/mA ''ašû'' IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1, ''Sumerisches Lautwerte'', 1:22; 2:607.</ref>  Possibly same as Akkadian ''eša'' (A.TIR), ''tu''<sub>7</sub>''-eša'' (''-sig''<sub>5</sub>), ''zi''<sub>3</sub> R, a fine grade flour, mostly derived from emmer = ''sasqûm'',  and as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.<ref>David I. Owen and Gordon D. Young. "Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library, Boston."  [[Journal of Cuneiform Studies|''JCS'']], 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “''eša''-flour”; [[Rykle Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon. 2nd ed. AOAT 305. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010.|''Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexicon'']], no. 839 (p. 437).</ref>  Perhaps prefixed with Sumerian NE “fire; burn” (Akkadian ''kinūnu''),<ref>ePSD.</ref> as prefix to a word (*NE-as) for hot-pepper, chili-pepper (as in Mixe-Zoque, the ethno-linguistic base in the Grijalva River Basin of Southern Mexico).
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Cf. Old & Late Babylonian ''nušû'', ''nešu'', a plant of some sort ([[Paul Y. Hoskisson|PYH]])<ref>Von Soden, [[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'']], II:806; [[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'']], “N,” 11, part II:355.</ref> = Sumerian a ha-an "Wasser-Absonderung, flüssiges Sekret, Erbrochenes" o. "stinkende Flüssigkeit" ''na-šu'', ''nušû'' (Attinger 550f.+1523f.).<ref>''Leipzig-Münchner Sumerischer Zettelkasten'' (Sept 2006), 17, online at http://www.assyriologie.uni-muenchen.de/forschung/forschungsprojekte/sumglossar/zettelkasten2006_09.pdf .</ref> Old Akkadian ''nušû'', ''šuhatinnu'' (= Sumerian za-ha-din, za-ha-din<sup>sar</sup>, šum<sub>2</sub>za-ha-din, za-ha-ti<sup>sar</sup>, zu-ha-ti-nu, sum-ha-din<sup>sar</sup> "a plant, a leek?").<ref>ePSD; Akkadian ''šuhatinnu'' is a type of onion.</ref>
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Benjamin Urrutia suggested ''nys'' “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.<ref>J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.</ref>  However, he may have intended Demotic ''Зmys'' “anise; dill”<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, [[Wolfhart Westendorf, Koptisches Handwörterbuch. Heidelberg: C. Winter Universitätsverlag, 1965.|''Koptisches Handwörterbuch'']], 36.</ref> > Copt. ''emise'', ''amici''; Greek ''anēthon'', ''anison'' > Latin ''anisum''.<ref>Černý, ''Coptic Etym''. 35; Westendorf, [[Wolfhart Westendorf, Koptisches Handwörterbuch. Heidelberg: C. Winter Universitätsverlag, 1965.|''Koptisches Handwörterbuch'']], 36.</ref>
  
No etymology is suggested. A semitic root such as ''nās/ṣ/š/ś/z'', ''na ’s/ṣ/š/ś/z'' or ''na ‘s/ṣ/š/ś/z'' would be the likely source. On the other hand, this noun may be borrowed
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Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear ''Jaredite'' names indicates long cultural overlap” with the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITES</small>]] or people of [[ZARAHEMLA|Z<small>ARAHEMLA</small>]].<ref>Nibley, ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'' (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V ([[Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies|FARMS]]/Deseret, 1988):246.</ref>
into Lehite from a native indigenous vocabel. The fact that Joseph Smith did not translate the word means that he did not have or was not aware of a suitable English
 
translation. This would seem to exclude potato, tomato, pepper, etc., indigenous American plants, and, depending on New England agricultural practices, the Old World
 
grain emmer.  
 
  
All the proffered suggestions are highly questionable: Late Babylonian ''*nušû(m)'', ''nešu'', a plant of some sort; Late Babylonian ''*kaš nāšu'', a kind of beer (i.e., fermented from
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See [[SHEUM|S<small>HEUM</small>]].
some cereal product, like malt). Akkadian ''*na’ṣu'', ''nāṣu'', “chew; in the mouth,” used with “root” and “cedar-wood,” so that '''NEAS''' might be a tuber of some sort. These
 
etymological possibilities suggest that the word is a [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] borrowing (RFS). Equally questionable is [[EGYPTIAN(S)|E<small>GYPTIAN</small>]] n, “belonging to” and is, “old, ancient,” i.e., “that which is
 
ancient” (JAT).  
 
  
 
Cf. Book of Mormon [[NEUM|N<small>EUM</small>]]
 
Cf. Book of Mormon [[NEUM|N<small>EUM</small>]]
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'''Variants'''
 
'''Variants'''
  
[[Neas Variants|neas]]
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[[Neas Variants]]
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'''[[Deseret Alphabet]]:''' 𐐤𐐀𐐈𐐞 (niːæz)
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==Notes==
 +
<references/>
 +
 
 +
==Bibliography==
 +
 
 +
Black, J., A. George, and N. Postgate, eds. ''A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian''.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000.
 +
 
 +
Borger, Rykle.  ''Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon'', 2nd ed., [[Alter Orient und altes Testament|AOAT]] 305.  Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010.
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 +
[[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''CAD'']] – ''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'' = ''Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago''.  Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.
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Deimel, Anton.  ''Šumerisches Lexikon'', 6 vols.  Rome: [[Pontifical Bible Institute, Rome publisher|PBI]], 1928.
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 +
Ellermeier, Friedrich.  ''Sumerisches Glossar'', I/1: ''Sumerische Lautwerte'', 1 & 2.  Göttingen: F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.
 +
 
 +
ePSD – ''Pennsylania Sumerian Dictionary''.  Babylonian Section, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology, online at http://psd.museum.upenn.edu/nepsd-frame.html .
 +
 
 +
 
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Nibley, Hugh W.  ''Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites'', 1<sup>st</sup> ed. (1952) = ''Collected Works of Hugh Nibley'' V.  Provo: [[Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies|FARMS]]/[[Salt Lake City|SLC]]: Deseret Book, 1988.
  
'''Deseret Alphabet:'''
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Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young.  “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library, Boston,” ''Journal of Cuneiform Studies'', 23/4 (1971):95-115.
 +
 
 +
von Soden, Wolfram.  ''Akkadisches Handwörterbuch'', 3 vols.  Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,
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1965-1981.  [[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''AHw'']]
  
'''Notes'''
 
----
 
 
[[Category:Names]][[Category:Lehite noun]]
 
[[Category:Names]][[Category:Lehite noun]]
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<div style="text-align: center;"> [[NAZARETH|<<]] Neas [[NEHOR|>>]] </div>
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==[[Name Index]]==
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<big>
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{|border="0" cellpadding="1" width="100%pt"
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|-
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|[[A]]
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|[[B]]
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|[[C]]
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|[[E]]
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|<font color="lightgray">F</font>
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|[[G]]
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|[[I]]
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|[[J]]
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|[[K]]
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|[[L]]
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|[[M]]
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|[[N]]
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|[[O]]
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|[[P]]
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|<font color="lightgray">Q</font>
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|[[R]]
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|[[S]]
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|[[T]]
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|[[U]]
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|<font color="lightgray">V</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">W</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">X</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">Y</font>
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|[[Z]]
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|}

Latest revision as of 20:48, 20 November 2019

Lehite noun 1. Food plant listed along with SHEUM and seeds of corn, barley, wheat, and various unspecified fruits (Mosiah 9:9)

Etymology

John Sorenson has made the most likely suggestion, that NEAS is the same as Mixe nij “chili-pepper,”[1] which aligns with Paul Hoskisson’s notion that NEAS may have been borrowed into Lehite from a native, indigenous vocabel, perhaps along the lines of huauzontle, chia, teosinte, quinoa, amaranth, jocote (mombin), manioc (cassava),[2] or other grain or food plant native to the Americas and unknown to Joseph Smith.[3]

And thus, perhaps a JAREDITE carryover (like SHEUM, which see). Possibly composed with Old Akkadian ás, “resin, seed, cereal, emmer-wheat,” from Akkadian áš, , ás, áz, áṣ (úÁŠ/ ZÍZ, ZĪZU II) “resin; emmer-wheat, cereal-food; dry-measure of 3 BAN”[4] – used, for example, in úÁŠ.DUG.GA “opium poppy,” in the name of the Sumerian grain-goddess, Ashnan (M. Civil), asnan,[5] and in A.ŠA, aš-šum “field” (= GÁN).[6] Possibly same as Akkadian eša (A.TIR), tu7-eša (-sig5), zi3 R, a fine grade flour, mostly derived from emmer = sasqûm, and as the name of “an unidentified cereal” in cuneiform texts.[7] Perhaps prefixed with Sumerian NE “fire; burn” (Akkadian kinūnu),[8] as prefix to a word (*NE-as) for hot-pepper, chili-pepper (as in Mixe-Zoque, the ethno-linguistic base in the Grijalva River Basin of Southern Mexico).

Cf. Old & Late Babylonian nušû, nešu, a plant of some sort (PYH)[9] = Sumerian a ha-an "Wasser-Absonderung, flüssiges Sekret, Erbrochenes" o. "stinkende Flüssigkeit" na-šu, nušû (Attinger 550f.+1523f.).[10] Old Akkadian nušû, šuhatinnu (= Sumerian za-ha-din, za-ha-dinsar, šum2za-ha-din, za-ha-tisar, zu-ha-ti-nu, sum-ha-dinsar "a plant, a leek?").[11]

Benjamin Urrutia suggested nys “anise,” but failed to indicate the source language.[12] However, he may have intended Demotic Зmys “anise; dill”[13] > Copt. emise, amici; Greek anēthon, anison > Latin anisum.[14]

Hugh Nibley long ago argued that “the fact that Nephite weights and measures bear Jaredite names indicates long cultural overlap” with the NEPHITES or people of ZARAHEMLA.[15]

See SHEUM.

Cf. Book of Mormon NEUM

See also Neas Variants

Variants

Neas Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐤𐐀𐐈𐐞 (niːæz)

Notes

  1. Sorenson, Mormon’s Codex, 306 n. 8.
  2. Manioc was recently discovered at Ceren, El Salvador, to be dated 1400 years ago to the time of a massive volcanic eruption "First Ancient Manioc Fields in America Discovered" , and "Maya Intensively Cultivated Manioc 1,400 Years Ago".
  3. Sorenson, Mormon’s Codex, 305; indeed, Sorenson notes that Hebrew pôl “bean,” ought to be compared to Maya bol, buul “bean” (306).
  4. Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexicon no. 548 (p. 361), noting also that ÁŠ(ZIZ)-AN-NA = kunāšu “emmer”; cf. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, 506 (cf. also Deimel, ŠL, 339.1,10,22,38; Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, “A,” I/II:234a).
  5. Black, George, and Postgate, Concise Dictionary of Akkadian, 28; Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, “A,” I/II:450-452.
  6. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, I:85 mB/mA ašû IV “arable land?”; Ellermeier, Sumerisches Glossar, I/1, Sumerisches Lautwerte, 1:22; 2:607.
  7. David I. Owen and Gordon D. Young. "Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library, Boston." JCS, 23/4 (1971):98, texts 6:4,6 “eša-flour”; Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexicon, no. 839 (p. 437).
  8. ePSD.
  9. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, II:806; Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, “N,” 11, part II:355.
  10. Leipzig-Münchner Sumerischer Zettelkasten (Sept 2006), 17, online at http://www.assyriologie.uni-muenchen.de/forschung/forschungsprojekte/sumglossar/zettelkasten2006_09.pdf .
  11. ePSD; Akkadian šuhatinnu is a type of onion.
  12. J. L. Sorenson, 1980 letter.
  13. Černý, Coptic Etym. 35; Westendorf, Koptisches Handwörterbuch, 36.
  14. Černý, Coptic Etym. 35; Westendorf, Koptisches Handwörterbuch, 36.
  15. Nibley, Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, V (FARMS/Deseret, 1988):246.

Bibliography

Black, J., A. George, and N. Postgate, eds. A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000.

Borger, Rykle. Mespotamisches Zeichenlexikon, 2nd ed., AOAT 305. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2010.

CADChicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.

Deimel, Anton. Šumerisches Lexikon, 6 vols. Rome: PBI, 1928.

Ellermeier, Friedrich. Sumerisches Glossar, I/1: Sumerische Lautwerte, 1 & 2. Göttingen: F. Ellermeier, 1979-1980.

ePSD – Pennsylania Sumerian Dictionary. Babylonian Section, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology, online at http://psd.museum.upenn.edu/nepsd-frame.html .


Nibley, Hugh W. Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites, 1st ed. (1952) = Collected Works of Hugh Nibley V. Provo: FARMS/SLC: Deseret Book, 1988.

Owen, David I., and Gordon D. Young. “Ur III Texts in the Zion Research Library, Boston,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 23/4 (1971):95-115.

von Soden, Wolfram. Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965-1981. AHw

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