Difference between revisions of "MULOKI"

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'''Etymology'''
 
'''Etymology'''
  
[[Ariel L. Crowley|Ariel Crowley]] appears to have been the first scholar to suggest that '''M<small>ULOKI</small>''' is related to [[MULEK|M<small>ULEK</small>]] and that both derive from the [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] word ''mlk'', “to rule, king” (“The Escape of Mulek,” Improvement Era, May 1955, p. 326, fn. 4). If all the vowels matched, it would be tempting to see this name as a gentilic of [[MULEK|M<small>ULEK</small>]], but they do not. Promising is the biblical [[Personal Name|PN]] ''mlwky'' in the Ketiv, but the Qoreh is ''mlykw'' ([http://scriptures.lds.org/en/neh/12/14#14 Nehemiah 12:14]).  
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'''M<small>ULOKI</small>''' could be a gentilic or ''nisbe'' form of '''M<small>ULEK</small>'''/'''M<small>ULOK</small>'''/'''M<small>ULOCH</small>''',<ref>In [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/mosiah/25.2?lang=eng Mosiah 25:2], the [[Personal Name|PN]] is spelled ''Mulek'' beginning with the 1879 editions. The 1830 edition has ''Mulok'', while the printer’s manuscript has ''Muloch''. See Royal Skousen, [[Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants in the Book of Mormon. 6 Parts. Provo, Utah: FARMS, Brigham Young University, 2004-2009.|''ATV'']] 3:1565-70.</ref>  meaning "Mulekite” ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]).<ref>John Tvedtnes, “Hebraisms in the Book of Mormon,” 1994 FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture (Provo: FARMS, 1994), 14; Tvedtnes, “Hebrew Names in the Book of Mormon,” in G. Khan, et al., eds., ''Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics'', 4 vols. (Brill, 2013), II:787-788, online at http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/browse/encyclopedia-of-hebrew-language-and-linguistics.</ref>  A bulla from Jerusalem from the time of Lehi contains the [[Personal Name|PN]] ''mlky'', possibly the Hebrew consonantal spelling of '''M<small>ULOKI</small>'''<ref>John A. Tvedtnes, John Gee, and Matthew Roper.  “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,”[[Journal of Book of Mormon Studies|''JBMS'']] 9/1 (2000):50</ref>. The consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible also attests to this [[Personal Name|PN]], ''mlwky'' ([https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/neh/12.14?lang=eng Nehemiah 12:14], with Qere ''mlykw''). Ariel Crowley appears to have been the first scholar to suggest that '''M<small>ULOKI</small>''' is related to '''M<small>ULEK</small>''' and that both derive from the '''H<small>EBREW</small>''' root ''mlk'', “to rule, king.”<ref>Ariel Crowley, “The Escape of Mulek,” ''Improvement Era'' 58 (May 1955): 326, n. 4.</ref>
  
Another biblical [[Personal Name|PN]], Malluch, is similar to '''M<small>ULOKI</small>'''. Perhaps it is best to assume the ''u'' to be a *shwa and the ''i'' as a hypocoristic ending, so that the name would originally have meant something like “rule of DN” or “counsel of DN” or even “DN rules” ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]).
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Another biblical [[Personal Name|PN]] from the same root, Malluch (that appears in [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/1-chr/6.44?lang=eng 1 Chron. 6:44], [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ezra/10.29?lang=eng Ezra 10:29], [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ezra/10.32?lang=eng 32], [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/neh/10.4?lang=eng Nehemiah 10:4], [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/neh/10.27?lang=eng 27], and [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/neh/12.2?lang=eng 12:2]), is similar to '''M<small>ULOKI</small>'''. In addition to the final ''i'' being a possible gentilic ending, the ''i'' could be a hypocoristic ending.<ref>For a list and discussion of hypocoristic endings see Noth, [[Martin Noth, Die israelitischen Personennamen im Rahmen der gemeinsemitischen Namengebung. Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament, III, 10. Stuttgart, 1928 /reprint: Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1966.|''IPN'']], 38, where he states, “sehr viel gebraucht ist die Endung ''ī''.</ref> See for example this same root with the hypocoristic ending ''ā'', ''mlkʾ'', and the plene [[Personal Name|PN]] ''mlkyhw''.<ref>Ahituv, 483.</ref> In this interpretation, '''M<small>ULOKI</small>''' would mean “The King is Y[ahweh].
  
Brian D. Stubbs<ref>Brian D. Stubbs, in an email communication with Paul Hoskisson, Stephen Ricks, and Robert Smith 15 March 2014.</ref> observes that the Uto-Aztecan Hopi noun ''mongi'', ''mongwi'', “chief,” may correspond to the [[Personal Name|PN]] '''M<small>ULOKI</small>''' or to [[MULEK|M<small>ULEK</sMall>]] since the Proto-Uto-Aztecan /*u/ > Hopi /o/ and /*l/ > /n/ or /N/ (general nasal) in Northern-Uto-Aztecan, especially in a consonant cluster with ''k'' (*-lk- > *-Nk- > -ŋ- being common in Uto-Aztecan), then *''mulki'' > Hopi ''moŋwi'' ‘leader, head, chief’ with residual rounding carried past the /-ŋ-/ makes something like Semitic ''muleki'' / ''mulki'' > Hopi ''moŋwi'' very plausible. Cognate with the Hopi term is Southern Paiute ''m<u>oi</u>''- ‘to lead, act as chief,’ whose nasalized vowels make it from *''moŋi''.
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Other, non Near Eastern suggestions have been made.<ref>Brian D. Stubbs, in an email communication with Paul Hoskisson, Stephen Ricks, and Robert F. Smith 15 March 2014, observes that the Uto-Aztecan Hopi noun mongi, mongwi, “chief,” may correspond to the [[Personal Name|PN]] Muloki or to Mulek since the Proto-Uto-Aztecan /*u/ > Hopi /o/ and /*l/ > /n/ or /N/ (general nasal) in Northern-Uto-Aztecan, especially in a consonant cluster with k (*-lk- > *-Nk- > -ŋ- being common in Uto-Aztecan), then *mulki > Hopi moŋwi‘leader, head, chief` with residual rounding carried past the /-ŋ-/ makes something like Semitic muleki / mulki > Hopi moŋwi very plausible. Cognate with the Hopi term is Southern Paiute moi- ‘to lead, act as chief,’ whose nasalized vowels make it from ''*moŋi''.</ref>
  
 
Cf. Book of Mormon [[MULEK|M<small>ULEK</small>]], [[AMULEK|A<small>MULEK</small>]], [[MELEK|M<small>ELEK</small>]], [[AMALEKI|A<small>MALEKI</small>]], [[AMALICKIAH|A<small>MALICKIAH</small>]], [[AMLICI|A<small>MLICI</small>]].
 
Cf. Book of Mormon [[MULEK|M<small>ULEK</small>]], [[AMULEK|A<small>MULEK</small>]], [[MELEK|M<small>ELEK</small>]], [[AMALEKI|A<small>MALEKI</small>]], [[AMALICKIAH|A<small>MALICKIAH</small>]], [[AMLICI|A<small>MLICI</small>]].

Latest revision as of 23:09, 19 January 2017

Lehite PN 1. Missionary to LAMANITES from ZARAHEMLA, ca. 90 BC (Alma 20:2; 21:Preface, 11)

Etymology

MULOKI could be a gentilic or nisbe form of MULEK/MULOK/MULOCH,[1] meaning "Mulekite” (JAT).[2] A bulla from Jerusalem from the time of Lehi contains the PN mlky, possibly the Hebrew consonantal spelling of MULOKI[3]. The consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible also attests to this PN, mlwky (Nehemiah 12:14, with Qere mlykw). Ariel Crowley appears to have been the first scholar to suggest that MULOKI is related to MULEK and that both derive from the HEBREW root mlk, “to rule, king.”[4]

Another biblical PN from the same root, Malluch (that appears in 1 Chron. 6:44, Ezra 10:29, 32, Nehemiah 10:4, 27, and 12:2), is similar to MULOKI. In addition to the final i being a possible gentilic ending, the i could be a hypocoristic ending.[5] See for example this same root with the hypocoristic ending ā, mlkʾ, and the plene PN mlkyhw.[6] In this interpretation, MULOKI would mean “The King is Y[ahweh].”

Other, non Near Eastern suggestions have been made.[7]

Cf. Book of Mormon MULEK, AMULEK, MELEK, AMALEKI, AMALICKIAH, AMLICI.

Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐣𐐊𐐢𐐄𐐗𐐌 (mʌloʊkaɪ)

Notes


  1. In Mosiah 25:2, the PN is spelled Mulek beginning with the 1879 editions. The 1830 edition has Mulok, while the printer’s manuscript has Muloch. See Royal Skousen, ATV 3:1565-70.
  2. John Tvedtnes, “Hebraisms in the Book of Mormon,” 1994 FARMS Book of Mormon Lecture (Provo: FARMS, 1994), 14; Tvedtnes, “Hebrew Names in the Book of Mormon,” in G. Khan, et al., eds., Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics, 4 vols. (Brill, 2013), II:787-788, online at http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/browse/encyclopedia-of-hebrew-language-and-linguistics.
  3. John A. Tvedtnes, John Gee, and Matthew Roper. “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,”JBMS 9/1 (2000):50
  4. Ariel Crowley, “The Escape of Mulek,” Improvement Era 58 (May 1955): 326, n. 4.
  5. For a list and discussion of hypocoristic endings see Noth, IPN, 38, where he states, “sehr viel gebraucht ist die Endung ī.
  6. Ahituv, 483.
  7. Brian D. Stubbs, in an email communication with Paul Hoskisson, Stephen Ricks, and Robert F. Smith 15 March 2014, observes that the Uto-Aztecan Hopi noun mongi, mongwi, “chief,” may correspond to the PN Muloki or to Mulek since the Proto-Uto-Aztecan /*u/ > Hopi /o/ and /*l/ > /n/ or /N/ (general nasal) in Northern-Uto-Aztecan, especially in a consonant cluster with k (*-lk- > *-Nk- > -ŋ- being common in Uto-Aztecan), then *mulki > Hopi moŋwi‘leader, head, chief` with residual rounding carried past the /-ŋ-/ makes something like Semitic muleki / mulki > Hopi moŋwi very plausible. Cognate with the Hopi term is Southern Paiute moi- ‘to lead, act as chief,’ whose nasalized vowels make it from *moŋi.
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