Difference between revisions of "LURAM"

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'''Etymology'''
 
'''Etymology'''
  
The name element ''lrm'' forms part of an Aramaic [[Personal Name|PN]], ''ʼdnlrm'', found on a seal during the Hama, Syria, excavations. The same [[Personal Name|PN]] “is known from graffiti on three eighth-century bricks from” Hama. Nahman Avigad with some uncertainty transliterates the name as “Adanluram.” <ref>Nahman Avigad, ''Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals'', revised and completed by Benjamin Sass (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1997), 285, n. 760.  [[John A. Tvedtnes|John Tvedtnes]], [[John Gee]], and [[Matthew Roper]] first drew attention to this name in [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|LDS]] circles in their article, “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,” [[Journal of Book of Mormon Studies|''JBMS'']] 9/1 (2000):49.</ref> This Aramaic [[Personal Name|PN]] appears to consist of three parts, ''ʼdn'', which means “master” or “lord;” '' l'', which is probably the precative<ref>For the use of ''lû'' as a precative particle, see [[Wilhelm Gesenius, Gesenius' Hebrew grammar. E. Kautzsch, ed. A. Cowley trans. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1910/ reprint Dover, 2006.|''Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar'']] §159''l'',''m'', and ''x''.</ref> or asseverative particle ''lû'', and the stative verb '' rūm'',<ref>The same stative form of the verb ''rūm'' appears in the biblical names Ram ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ruth/4.19?lang=eng#18 Ruth 4:19]) and Abram.</ref> meaning “lifted up, exalted.'''L<small>URAM</small>''' would then mean in the precative “May he be exalted” ([[Paul Y. Hoskisson|PYH]]), or in the asseverative, “Surely he is exalted” ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]).
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[[John A. Tvedtnes|John Tvedtnes]], [[John Gee]], and [[Matthew Roper]] were among the first Book of Mormon researchers to point out that the Book of Mormon [[Personal Name|PN]] '''L<small>URAM</small>''', the name of a Nephite soldier who perished in the final battles between the Lamanites and Nephites, may be connected to the name ''’dnlrm'' (transliterated by the editors of a study of West Semitic cylinder seals as “Adanluram”) found on a seal and in graffiti at Hama (ancient Hamath in Syria).<ref> [[John A. Tvedtnes|Tvedtnes]], [[John Gee|Gee]] and [[Matthew Roper|Roper]], in “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,” [[Journal of Book of Mormon Studies|''JBMS'']] 9/1 (2000):49, citing N. Avigad, ''Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals'', revised and completed by Benjamin Sass (Jeruslem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1997), p. 285, no. 760.</ref> '''L<small>URAM</small>''' may be from the Hebrew root ram “to be exalted”<ref> [[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']], p. 1202; cf. also the biblical [[Personal Name|PN]] Ram = Hebrew ''rām'' “Exalted” ([https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ruth/4.19?lang=eng#18 Ruth 4:19]; [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/1-chr/2.9?lang=eng#8 1 Chronicles 2:9]; [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/job/32.2?lang=eng#1 Job 32:2], [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/nt/matt/1.3?lang=eng#2 Matthew 1:3]), as also in the last part of Abram “Exalted-Father”.</ref> and the particle ''lu'', with an asseverative or precative sense, “oh that; indeed, certainly,”<ref> [[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']], p. 521; cf. Zipora Cochavi-Rainey, ''The Akkadian Dialect of Egyptian Scribe in the 14th and 13th Centuries BCE'' (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2011), 94, 104-5, 136, 200, for a discussion of the Akkadian asseverative/precative particle ''lu''.</ref> producing the meaning of a hypocoristicon, “may he [God, the Lord] be exalted; he is truly exalted.
  
Less likely is a mixed name containing the Sumerian word for “man,” LÚ, and the Akkadian word for “exalted,” ''rām''. Such mixing of languages in ancient Near Eastern names is rather unlikely.<ref>I am not aware of a single instance of mixed language names. The Akkadian word ''lumaḫḫu'', a high ranking priest or purification priest ([[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'']] L 9:244) is not a name; it is a title. And it is not a mixed name because both elements, ''lu'' and ''maḫ'' are borrowed from Sumerian into Akkadian.</ref>
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It is less likely that the Sumerian LÚ, “man,” would be combined with the Akkadian ''ram'', “exalted,” thus “exalted man,” since most proper names are generally not produced from a combination of languages. Also less likely is a derivation from Akkadian ''lurmû'' “pomegranate (tree).”<ref> [[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''CAD'']], “L,” 9:255.</ref>
 
 
Much less likely is a derivation from Akkadian ''lurmû'' “pomegranate (tree).”<ref>[[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary'']] L, 9:255.</ref>
 
  
 
See [[RAMEUMPTOM|R<small>AMEUMPTOM</small>]], [[RAMAH|R<small>AMAH</small>]], [[RAMATH|R<small>AMATH</small>]].
 
See [[RAMEUMPTOM|R<small>AMEUMPTOM</small>]], [[RAMAH|R<small>AMAH</small>]], [[RAMATH|R<small>AMATH</small>]].

Revision as of 20:50, 26 March 2015

Lehite PN 1. NEPHITE soldier, 4th c. AD (Moroni 9:2)

Etymology

John Tvedtnes, John Gee, and Matthew Roper were among the first Book of Mormon researchers to point out that the Book of Mormon PN LURAM, the name of a Nephite soldier who perished in the final battles between the Lamanites and Nephites, may be connected to the name ’dnlrm (transliterated by the editors of a study of West Semitic cylinder seals as “Adanluram”) found on a seal and in graffiti at Hama (ancient Hamath in Syria).[1] LURAM may be from the Hebrew root ram “to be exalted”[2] and the particle lu, with an asseverative or precative sense, “oh that; indeed, certainly,”[3] producing the meaning of a hypocoristicon, “may he [God, the Lord] be exalted; he is truly exalted.”

It is less likely that the Sumerian LÚ, “man,” would be combined with the Akkadian ram, “exalted,” thus “exalted man,” since most proper names are generally not produced from a combination of languages. Also less likely is a derivation from Akkadian lurmû “pomegranate (tree).”[4]

See RAMEUMPTOM, RAMAH, RAMATH.

See also Luram / Laram Variants

Variants

Laram

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐢𐐆𐐅𐐡𐐊𐐣 (lɪuːrʌm)

Notes


  1. Tvedtnes, Gee and Roper, in “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,” JBMS 9/1 (2000):49, citing N. Avigad, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals, revised and completed by Benjamin Sass (Jeruslem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1997), p. 285, no. 760.
  2. HALOT, p. 1202; cf. also the biblical PN Ram = Hebrew rām “Exalted” (Ruth 4:19; 1 Chronicles 2:9; Job 32:2, Matthew 1:3), as also in the last part of Abram “Exalted-Father”.
  3. HALOT, p. 521; cf. Zipora Cochavi-Rainey, The Akkadian Dialect of Egyptian Scribe in the 14th and 13th Centuries BCE (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2011), 94, 104-5, 136, 200, for a discussion of the Akkadian asseverative/precative particle lu.
  4. CAD, “L,” 9:255.