Difference between revisions of "LURAM"

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(Submitted by Stephen Ricks, Approved in Onoma Meeting 03-19-15)
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'''Etymology'''
 
'''Etymology'''
  
[[John A. Tvedtnes|John Tvedtnes]], [[John Gee]], and [[Matthew Roper]] were among the first Book of Mormon researchers to point out that the Book of Mormon [[Personal Name|PN]] '''L<small>URAM</small>''', the name of a Nephite soldier who perished in the final battles between the Lamanites and Nephites, may be connected to the name ''’dnlrm'' (transliterated by the editors of a study of West Semitic cylinder seals as “Adanluram”) found on a seal and in graffiti at Hama (ancient Hamath in Syria).<ref> [[John A. Tvedtnes|Tvedtnes]], [[John Gee|Gee]] and [[Matthew Roper|Roper]], in “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,” [[Journal of Book of Mormon Studies|''JBMS'']] 9/1 (2000):49, citing N. Avigad, ''Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals'', revised and completed by Benjamin Sass (Jeruslem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1997), p. 285, no. 760.</ref> '''L<small>URAM</small>''' may be from the Hebrew root ram “to be exalted”<ref> [[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']], p. 1202; cf. also the biblical [[Personal Name|PN]] Ram = Hebrew ''rām'' “Exalted” ([https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ruth/4.19?lang=eng#18 Ruth 4:19]; [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/1-chr/2.9?lang=eng#8 1 Chronicles 2:9]; [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/job/32.2?lang=eng#1 Job 32:2], [https://www.lds.org/scriptures/nt/matt/1.3?lang=eng#2 Matthew 1:3]), as also in the last part of Abram “Exalted-Father”.</ref> and the particle ''lu'', with an asseverative or precative sense, “oh that; indeed, certainly,”<ref> [[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']], p. 521; cf. Zipora Cochavi-Rainey, ''The Akkadian Dialect of Egyptian Scribe in the 14th and 13th Centuries BCE'' (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2011), 94, 104-5, 136, 200, for a discussion of the Akkadian asseverative/precative particle ''lu''.</ref> producing the meaning of a hypocoristicon, “may he [God, the Lord] be exalted; he is truly exalted.
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The name element ''lrm'' forms part of an Aramaic [[Personal Name|PN]], ''ʼdnlrm'', found on a seal during the Hama, Syria, excavations. The same [[Personal Name|PN]] “is known from graffiti on three eighth-century bricks from” Hama. Nahman Avigad with some uncertainty transliterates the name as “Adanluram.”<ref>Nahman Avigad, ''Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals'', revised and completed by Benjamin Sass (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1997), 285, n. 760. John Tvedtnes, John Gee, and Matthew Roper first drew attention to this name in LDS circles in their article, “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,” ''[[Journal of Book of Mormon Studies|JBMS]]'' 9/1 (2000):49.</ref> This Aramaic [[Personal Name|PN]] appears to consist of three parts, ''ʼdn'', which means “master” or “lord;” '''', which is probably the precative<ref>[[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']], sub לו. For a discussion of the use of ''lû'' as a precative particle, see GKC §159''l'', ''m'', and ''x''.</ref> or asseverative particle ''lû'', and the stative verb ''rūm'',<ref>The same stative verb ''rūm'' appears in the biblical names Ram ([https://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ruth/4.19?lang=eng#18 Ruth 4:19]) and Abram.</ref> meaning “lifted up, exalted.” '''L<small>URAM</small>''' would then mean in the precative “May he be exalted” ([[Paul Y. Hoskisson|PYH]]), or in the asseverative, “Surely he is exalted” ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]).
  
It is less likely that the Sumerian LÚ, “man,” would be combined with the Akkadian ''ram'', “exalted,” thus “exalted man,” since most proper names are generally not produced from a combination of languages. Also less likely is a derivation from Akkadian ''lurmû'' “pomegranate (tree).”<ref> [[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''CAD'']], “L,” 9:255.</ref>
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Less likely is a mixed name containing the Sumerian word for “man,” LÚ, and the Akkadian word for “exalted,” ''rām''. Such mixing of languages in ancient Near Eastern names is rather unlikely.<ref>Paul Hoskisson is not aware of a single instance of mixed language names before the Persian conquest. The Akkadian word ''lumaḫḫu'', a high ranking priest or purification priest ([[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''CAD'']] L 9:244) is not a name; it is a title. And it is not a mixed name because both elements, ''lú'' and ''maḫ'' are Sumerian and were borrowed as a unit into Akkadian.</ref>
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Much less likely is a derivation from Akkadian ''lurmû'' “pomegranate (tree).”<ref>[[Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.|''CAD'']] L, 9:255.</ref>
  
 
See [[RAMEUMPTOM|R<small>AMEUMPTOM</small>]], [[RAMAH|R<small>AMAH</small>]], [[RAMATH|R<small>AMATH</small>]].
 
See [[RAMEUMPTOM|R<small>AMEUMPTOM</small>]], [[RAMAH|R<small>AMAH</small>]], [[RAMATH|R<small>AMATH</small>]].

Revision as of 20:20, 18 September 2015

Lehite PN 1. NEPHITE soldier, 4th c. AD (Moroni 9:2)

Etymology

The name element lrm forms part of an Aramaic PN, ʼdnlrm, found on a seal during the Hama, Syria, excavations. The same PN “is known from graffiti on three eighth-century bricks from” Hama. Nahman Avigad with some uncertainty transliterates the name as “Adanluram.”[1] This Aramaic PN appears to consist of three parts, ʼdn, which means “master” or “lord;” , which is probably the precative[2] or asseverative particle , and the stative verb rūm,[3] meaning “lifted up, exalted.” LURAM would then mean in the precative “May he be exalted” (PYH), or in the asseverative, “Surely he is exalted” (JAT).

Less likely is a mixed name containing the Sumerian word for “man,” LÚ, and the Akkadian word for “exalted,” rām. Such mixing of languages in ancient Near Eastern names is rather unlikely.[4]

Much less likely is a derivation from Akkadian lurmû “pomegranate (tree).”[5]

See RAMEUMPTOM, RAMAH, RAMATH.

See also Luram / Laram Variants

Variants

Laram

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐢𐐆𐐅𐐡𐐊𐐣 (lɪuːrʌm)

Notes


  1. Nahman Avigad, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals, revised and completed by Benjamin Sass (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1997), 285, n. 760. John Tvedtnes, John Gee, and Matthew Roper first drew attention to this name in LDS circles in their article, “Book of Mormon Names Attested in Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions,” JBMS 9/1 (2000):49.
  2. HALOT, sub לו. For a discussion of the use of as a precative particle, see GKC §159l, m, and x.
  3. The same stative verb rūm appears in the biblical names Ram (Ruth 4:19) and Abram.
  4. Paul Hoskisson is not aware of a single instance of mixed language names before the Persian conquest. The Akkadian word lumaḫḫu, a high ranking priest or purification priest (CAD L 9:244) is not a name; it is a title. And it is not a mixed name because both elements, and maḫ are Sumerian and were borrowed as a unit into Akkadian.
  5. CAD L, 9:255.