Difference between revisions of "LIMHAH"

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|'''[[:Category:Lehite PN|Lehite PN]]'''
 
|'''[[:Category:Lehite PN|Lehite PN]]'''
 
|1.
 
|1.
|General, 4th c. AD ([http://scriptures.lds.org/en/morm/6/14#14 Mormon 6:14])
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|General, 4th c. AD ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/morm/6.14?lang=eng#13 Mormon 6:14])
 
|}
 
|}
  
Like [[LAMAH|L<small>AMAH</small>]], '''LIMHAH''' may be related to the biblical PN Lamech ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]). Much less likely is a derivation analyzed as Limiah (like [[LEMUEL|L<small>EMUEL</small>]]), i.e., “belonging to Yahweh” because the expected form would be something like ''lemîyāh'' ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]).
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'''Etymology'''
  
Inasmuch as there are several Book of Mormon names beginning with ''lim'', perhaps this element should be analyzed separately. “Lim” occurs in Amorite PNs of the Bronze Age, perhaps the most prominent being the king of Mari, Zimri-Lim. If, as the consensus affirms, ''lim'' is a theophoric element, then it is unlikely it would be used as such in Lehite. ''-hah'' also seems to be an element in the Book of Mormon onomasticon and may be analyzed separately.
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Inasmuch as there are several Book of Mormon names beginning with ''lim'', perhaps this element should be analyzed se¬parately. Until then, there are two viable etymologies for ''lim''.  
  
''lim'' means “1,000” in Sumerian, but that does not seem to be any help ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]). ''lim'' may be from the Semitic word for “people,” represented by Hebrew and Ugaritic ''lʾm'', and Babylonian ''liyyaum'' ([[Robert F. Smith|RFS]]).
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Lim occurs in Amorite [[Personal Name|PN]]s of the Bronze Age, perhaps the most prominent being the king of Mari, Zimri-Lim. If, as the consensus affirms, ''lim'' is a theophoric element, then it might be, by syncretism, a title for [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] Yahweh.  
  
Cf. Book of Mormon [[LIMHI]] (perhaps gentilic), [[LIMHER]], [[LAMAH]], perhaps [[LIMNAH]]
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The element -''hah''<ref>-''hah'' seems to be an element in the Book of Mormon onomasticon and may be analyzed separately.</ref> may be related to the [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] word for “life; alive; live; make alive,” ''ḥayah'', from the proto-Semitic root *''ḥyy''. If so, then '''L<small>IMHAH</small>''' could be etymologized, analogous to [[LIMHI|L<small>IMHI</small>]], to mean “Lim has preserved alive,” or “Lim makes life.”
  
 +
The element ''lim'' could also be related to Ugaritic ''lim'', a cognate with [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''lĕʾom''. Both mean “people/nation.”  “People,” together with the [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] word for “alive; live,” ''ḥay'', might yield “the people live,” that is, “the people are preserved alive.” The main issue with this etymology for '''L<small>IMHAH</small>''' is that the final ''h'' cannot be explained. ([[Robert F. Smith|RFS]])
  
(The brother names [[MAHAH|M<small>AHAH</small>]] and [[ORIHAH|O<small>RIHAH</small>]] have not been included in the foregoing discussion for several reasons. They are exclusively Jaredite names attested only in [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/ether/6/14#14 Ether 6:14], while all the names above are attested exclusively in Nephite/Mulekite contexts. [[GILGAH|G<small>ILGAH</small>]], a brother to [[MAHAH|M<small>AHAH</small>]] and [[ORIHAH|O<small>RIHAH</small>]], also is attested only in [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/ether/6/14#14 Ether 6:14]. Therefore, in these three exclusively Jaredite names, the ending, if it is one, is likely to be ''-ah'', ''-hah'', let alone ''-ihah''. However, a connection cannot be ruled out because Jaredite names begin appearing in the Book of Mormon onomasticon in the same period as the Nephite/Mulekite ''-hah'' names appear. Therefore, [[MAHAH|M<small>AHAH</small>]] and [[ORIHAH|O<small>RIHAH</small>]] may or may not be connected with Nephite ''-hah'' names through Jaredite channels. Baring the Jaredite connection, it would seem that the lack of temporal and spatial propinquity would rule out the possibility that Jaredite ''-ihah'', ''-hah'' or ''-ah'' can be connected with the Hebrew Tetragrammaton. More likely is the possibility that the Jaredite ending was borrowed by the Nephites since all the Nephite names ending in ''-hah'' only appear in the Nephite record after the Nephites could have theoretically come in contact with Jaredite influence.)
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On analogy with the etymology of [[LEMUEL|L<small>EMUEL</small>]], “Belonging to God,”<ref>[[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']] למואל.</ref> it may be tempting to suggest that '''L<small>IMHAH</small>''' means, “belonging to Yahweh.” However, this possibility seems unlikely. The expected form would be something like ''lĕmîyāh'' or ''lĕmûyāh'' ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]), which would have either an /i/ or a /u/ between the ''m'' and the ''a'', and not an ''h''.
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In Akkadian, ''lim/līmu'' means “1,000” (which may be related to [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''lĕʾom'', “people"<ref>[[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''AHw'']] 1:553b.</ref>) and is used as a shorted form of “thousand gods” that appear in Syro-Hittite treaties and Ugaritic texts<ref>[[Herbert B. Huffmon|Huffmon]], 226.</ref> ([[Robert F. Smith|RFS]]). But Akkadian ''līmu'' and its Ugaritic cognate ''lim'' do not seem to be helpful in explaining Lehite names ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]).
 +
An etymology based on ''lmk'' such as the biblical [[Personal Name|PN]] Lamech is unlikely. While it is true that under certain conditions, the Masoretic pronunciation of ''k'' is spirantized, thus allowing for a transcribed /h/, it would not be spirantized in '''L<small>IMHAH</small>''', even if the Lehites held to the much later Masoretic pronunciation conventions.
 +
Other etymologies might be sought in other North-west Semitic, East Semitic, and South Semitic languages, and possibly in [[EGYPTIAN(S)|E<small>EGYPTIAN</small>]].
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Cf. Book of Mormon [[LIMHI|L<small>IMHI</small>]], [[LIMHER|L<small>IMHER</small>]], [[LIMNAH|L<small>IMNAH</small>]], perhaps [[LAMAH|L<small>AMAH</small>]].<ref>The brother names [[MAHAH|M<small>AHAH</small>]] and [[ORIHAH|O<small>RIHAH</small>]] are not included in this list because they are exclusively [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] names attested only in [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/ether/6.14?lang=eng#13 Ether 6:14], while all the names above are attested exclusively in [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITE</small>]]/Mulekite contexts. On the other hand, all the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITE</small>]] names ending in -''hah'' only appear in the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITE</small>]] record after the [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITES</small>]] could have theoretically come in contact with [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] names.</ref>
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'''Variants'''
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'''[[Deseret Alphabet]]:''' 𐐢𐐆𐐣𐐐𐐂 (lɪmhɑː)
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'''Notes'''
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----
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<references/>
  
 
[[Category:Names]][[Category:Lehite PN]]
 
[[Category:Names]][[Category:Lehite PN]]
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<div style="text-align: center;"> [[LIB|<<]] Limhah [[LIMHER|>>]] </div>
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==[[Name Index]]==
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<big>
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{|border="0" cellpadding="1" width="100%pt"
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|-
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|[[A]]
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|[[B]]
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|[[C]]
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|[[D]]
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|[[E]]
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|<font color="lightgray">F</font>
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|[[G]]
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|[[H]]
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|[[I]]
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|[[J]]
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|[[K]]
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|[[L]]
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|[[M]]
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|[[N]]
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|[[O]]
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|[[P]]
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|<font color="lightgray">Q</font>
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|[[R]]
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|[[S]]
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|[[T]]
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|[[U]]
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|<font color="lightgray">V</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">W</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">X</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">Y</font>
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|[[Z]]
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|}

Latest revision as of 01:40, 21 November 2015

Lehite PN 1. General, 4th c. AD (Mormon 6:14)

Etymology

Inasmuch as there are several Book of Mormon names beginning with lim, perhaps this element should be analyzed se¬parately. Until then, there are two viable etymologies for lim.

Lim occurs in Amorite PNs of the Bronze Age, perhaps the most prominent being the king of Mari, Zimri-Lim. If, as the consensus affirms, lim is a theophoric element, then it might be, by syncretism, a title for HEBREW Yahweh.

The element -hah[1] may be related to the HEBREW word for “life; alive; live; make alive,” ḥayah, from the proto-Semitic root *ḥyy. If so, then LIMHAH could be etymologized, analogous to LIMHI, to mean “Lim has preserved alive,” or “Lim makes life.”

The element lim could also be related to Ugaritic lim, a cognate with HEBREW lĕʾom. Both mean “people/nation.” “People,” together with the HEBREW word for “alive; live,” ḥay, might yield “the people live,” that is, “the people are preserved alive.” The main issue with this etymology for LIMHAH is that the final h cannot be explained. (RFS)

On analogy with the etymology of LEMUEL, “Belonging to God,”[2] it may be tempting to suggest that LIMHAH means, “belonging to Yahweh.” However, this possibility seems unlikely. The expected form would be something like lĕmîyāh or lĕmûyāh (JH), which would have either an /i/ or a /u/ between the m and the a, and not an h.

In Akkadian, lim/līmu means “1,000” (which may be related to HEBREW lĕʾom, “people"[3]) and is used as a shorted form of “thousand gods” that appear in Syro-Hittite treaties and Ugaritic texts[4] (RFS). But Akkadian līmu and its Ugaritic cognate lim do not seem to be helpful in explaining Lehite names (JH). An etymology based on lmk such as the biblical PN Lamech is unlikely. While it is true that under certain conditions, the Masoretic pronunciation of k is spirantized, thus allowing for a transcribed /h/, it would not be spirantized in LIMHAH, even if the Lehites held to the much later Masoretic pronunciation conventions. Other etymologies might be sought in other North-west Semitic, East Semitic, and South Semitic languages, and possibly in EEGYPTIAN.

Cf. Book of Mormon LIMHI, LIMHER, LIMNAH, perhaps LAMAH.[5]

Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐢𐐆𐐣𐐐𐐂 (lɪmhɑː)

Notes


  1. -hah seems to be an element in the Book of Mormon onomasticon and may be analyzed separately.
  2. HALOT למואל.
  3. AHw 1:553b.
  4. Huffmon, 226.
  5. The brother names MAHAH and ORIHAH are not included in this list because they are exclusively JAREDITE names attested only in Ether 6:14, while all the names above are attested exclusively in NEPHITE/Mulekite contexts. On the other hand, all the NEPHITE names ending in -hah only appear in the NEPHITE record after the NEPHITES could have theoretically come in contact with JAREDITE names.
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