Difference between revisions of "JACOBUGATH"

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|'''[[:Category:Lehite GN|Lehite GN]]'''
 
|'''[[:Category:Lehite GN|Lehite GN]]'''
 
|1.
 
|1.
|City of people of Jacob No. 4, ca. 30 AD ([http://scriptures.lds.org/en/3_ne/9/9#9 3 Nephi 9:9])
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|Wicked [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITE</small>]] city of King [[JACOB|J<small>ACOB</small>]] ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/3-ne/9.9?lang=eng#8 3 Nephi 9:9]). Jacob Ugath in [[Abbreviations|Pms]], with hyphen added later in [[Abbreviations|P<sup>C</sup>]], and Jacobugath in 1830 and subsequent editions.<ref>Skousen, [[Royal Skousen, Analysis of Textual Variants in the Book of Mormon. 6 Parts. Provo, Utah: FARMS, Brigham Young University, 2004-2009.|''ATV'']], 5:3329-3331; ''Printers Manuscript'', 378 line 10; cf. [[Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies|FARMS]] ''Book of Mormon Critical Text'', 2<sup>nd</sup> ed., III:1024 n. 196.</ref> Skousen has Jacob-Ugath in his Yale edition.<ref>Skousen, ''The Book of Mormon: The Earliest Text'' (Yale Univ. Press, 2009), 589.</ref>
 
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Most likely the name means “Jacob of the winepress” or similar ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]), from the biblical PN yaʿaqōb and gt, “winepress,” appearing in the Philistine GN Gath. The medial “-u-”
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'''Etymology'''
could be the vestigal nominative case ending, such as in the biblical GN Penuel or in the PN Methuselah. But by the time of Lehi such use of the case endings had long ceased
 
to be a part of the living language. Therefore, its appearance in this Book of Mormon GN must have been a conscious (even if misunderstood) anachronism.<ref>After reading “Jacob” as a verb with a vestigial proto-Semitic “u” of the indicative mode, [[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]] adds that “this is a rather desperate explanation,” because it would require that the “u” be added by analogy to other place names with vestigial case endings (e.g., Penuel) by people who did not understand the significance of that vowel. But according to [[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]], the problem could be resolved, of course, if the name Jacobugath were built around Jacob as a PN rather than as a verb, which it was, of course, for the Israelites ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]). This is what I have done above.</ref> Compare the biblical PN Genubath in [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/1_kgs/11/20#20 1 Kings 11:20], which means *
 
  
It has also been proposed that this is a compound name built from “Jacob,the name of the Nephite founder of the city, and from “Ogath,a Jaredite GN ([http://scriptures.lds.org/en/ether/15/10#10 Ether 15:10]) ([[Robert F. Smith|RFS]]).
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[[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] ''yaʿăqōb'' "Protector; Betrayer; Who seizes by the heel;<ref>[[Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 vols. revised by W. Baumgartner and Johann J. Stamm. Leiden: Brill, 1994. trans. of 5-volume 3rd German edition.|''HALOT'']], 872, for both verbal and nominal forms of same consonantal texts. True and folk etymologies are mixed and take part in word-play.</ref> Supplanter"<ref>[[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|LDS]] ''Holy Bible'' (1979), 41 n.</ref> ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/25.26?lang=eng#25 Genesis 25:26]), ''û'' "and," ''gat'', a [[Geographical Name|GN]] of unknown meaning ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/1-sam/17.52?lang=eng#51 1 Samuel 17:52]), often in combination with other [[Geographical Name|GN]]s ([http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/josh/19.13?lang=eng#12 Joshua 19:13]; [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/josh/21.24?lang=eng#23 21:24]). Perhaps location identical with [[JAREDITES|J<small>AREDITE</small>]] city of [[OGATH|O<small>GATH</small>]].
  
The “u” can also be explained, though with less likelihood, as the common Semitic conjunction “and.” This yields the interpretation “Jacob-and-the-wine-press” (reading “gath” as above) ([[Robert F. Smith|RFS]]). The conjunction is always written with a vav (ו) in North-west Semitic, but pronounced in Masoretic Hebrew sometimes as “u” and sometimes as “ve,” depending on the *environs. In the case here, Masoretic pronunciation would require the “ve” and not the “u,” which is why reading the “u” as a conjunction is less likely ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]). However, no one has yet proven that Lehi and his descendants were subject to Masoretic pronunciation.
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See [[OGATH|O<small>GATH</small>]].
  
Cf. Book of Mormon [[JACOB]], [[OGATH]]. Per [[Robert F. Smith|RFS]], cf. also Gad, [[GID]].
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'''Variants'''
  
See also [[Jacobugath / / Jacob Ugath / Jacob-Ugath Variant]], [[JACOB]] and [[JACOBITES]]
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[[Jacobugath / / Jacob Ugath / Jacob-Ugath Variant|Jacob Ugath]], [[Jacobugath / / Jacob Ugath / Jacob-Ugath Variant|Jacob-Ugath]]
  
==Notes==
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'''[[Deseret Alphabet]]:''' 𐐖𐐁𐐗𐐊𐐒𐐆𐐅𐐘𐐈𐐛 (dʒeɪkʌbɪuːɡæθ)
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'''Notes'''
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----
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
<div style="text-align: right;"> [[Robert F. Smith|RFS]] </div>
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[[Category:Names]][[Category:Lehite GN]]
  
[[Category:Names]][[Category:Lehite GN]]
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<div style="text-align: center;"> [[JACOBITES|<<]] Jacobugath [[JACOM|>>]] </div>
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==[[Name Index]]==
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{|border="0" cellpadding="1" width="100%pt"
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|<font color="lightgray">F</font>
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|[[G]]
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|[[H]]
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|[[I]]
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|[[J]]
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|[[N]]
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|[[P]]
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|<font color="lightgray">Q</font>
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|[[R]]
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|[[S]]
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|[[T]]
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|[[U]]
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|<font color="lightgray">V</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">W</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">X</font>
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|<font color="lightgray">Y</font>
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|[[Z]]
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|}

Latest revision as of 00:08, 21 November 2015

Lehite GN 1. Wicked NEPHITE city of King JACOB (3 Nephi 9:9). Jacob Ugath in Pms, with hyphen added later in PC, and Jacobugath in 1830 and subsequent editions.[1] Skousen has Jacob-Ugath in his Yale edition.[2]

Etymology

HEBREW yaʿăqōb "Protector; Betrayer; Who seizes by the heel;[3] Supplanter"[4] (Genesis 25:26), û "and," gat, a GN of unknown meaning (1 Samuel 17:52), often in combination with other GNs (Joshua 19:13; 21:24). Perhaps location identical with JAREDITE city of OGATH.

See OGATH.

Variants

Jacob Ugath, Jacob-Ugath

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐖𐐁𐐗𐐊𐐒𐐆𐐅𐐘𐐈𐐛 (dʒeɪkʌbɪuːɡæθ)

Notes


  1. Skousen, ATV, 5:3329-3331; Printers Manuscript, 378 line 10; cf. FARMS Book of Mormon Critical Text, 2nd ed., III:1024 n. 196.
  2. Skousen, The Book of Mormon: The Earliest Text (Yale Univ. Press, 2009), 589.
  3. HALOT, 872, for both verbal and nominal forms of same consonantal texts. True and folk etymologies are mixed and take part in word-play.
  4. LDS Holy Bible (1979), 41 n.
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