Difference between revisions of "GAD"

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'''Etymology'''
 
'''Etymology'''
  
It is likely that this [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITE</small>]] hapax legomenon GN comes from the PN of the first person who settled the city (see [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/alma/8.7?lang=eng#6 Alma 8:7]). The root ''gad'' in [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] means "fortune, luck, riches, etc.," and is quite common in [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]], including the PN ''gād'', one of the twelve sons of [[JACOB|J<small>ACOB</small>]] ([[ISRAEL|I<small>SRAEL</small>]]).<ref>The King James Bible disguises the meaning of [[JACOB|J<small>ACOB</small>]]'s son's name by rendering [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/30.11?lang=eng#10 Genesis 30:11] (the first time the personal name appears in the Bible), "And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad." The Matthew Bible (1537) is more accurate, "Then said Lea: Good luck: and called his name Gad." A more literal translation might be, "And Leah said, 'By good fortune!' And she called his name Gad." (See [[Abbreviations|''HALOT'']] sub גד.) The name for ''troop''/''band'' in biblical [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] is ''gĕdȗd'', a close homophone (in Semitic languages) of ''gad''.</ref>The (deified) word appears in biblical PNs, e.g., ''Gaddiel'' (perhaps, "My fortune is El") in [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/num/13.5?lang=eng#4 Numbers 13:5], and in extra-biblical [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] texts close to the time of [[LEHI|L<small>EHI</small>]] ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]).<ref>See Shmuel Ahitub, ''Echoes from the Past: [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period'' (Jerusalem: Carta, 2008), 503, for the names גד, גדיו, גדעזר.</ref>
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It is likely that this [[NEPHITE(S)|N<small>EPHITE</small>]] hapax legomenon [[Geographical Name|GN]] comes from the PN of the first person who settled the city (see [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/bofm/alma/8.7?lang=eng#6 Alma 8:7]). The root ''gad'' in [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] means "fortune, luck, riches, etc.," and is quite common in [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]], including the PN ''gād'', one of the twelve sons of [[JACOB|J<small>ACOB</small>]] ([[ISRAEL|I<small>SRAEL</small>]]).<ref>The King James Bible disguises the meaning of [[JACOB|J<small>ACOB</small>]]'s son's name by rendering [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/gen/30.11?lang=eng#10 Genesis 30:11] (the first time the personal name appears in the Bible), "And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad." The Matthew Bible (1537) is more accurate, "Then said Lea: Good luck: and called his name Gad." A more literal translation might be, "And Leah said, 'By good fortune!' And she called his name Gad." (See [[Abbreviations|''HALOT'']] sub גד.) The name for ''troop''/''band'' in biblical [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] is ''gĕdȗd'', a close homophone (in Semitic languages) of ''gad''.</ref>The (deified) word appears in biblical PNs, e.g., ''Gaddiel'' (perhaps, "My fortune is El") in [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/num/13.5?lang=eng#4 Numbers 13:5], and in extra-biblical [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] texts close to the time of [[LEHI|L<small>EHI</small>]] ([[John A. Tvedtnes|JAT]]).<ref>See Shmuel Ahitub, ''Echoes from the Past: [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period'' (Jerusalem: Carta, 2008), 503, for the names גד, גדיו, גדעזר.</ref>
  
The biblical noun ''gĕdȗd'', "band, troop," is a possibility for this GN.<ref>The [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] verb ''gdd'' apparently is a denominative from this primary noun and means "to band together." See [[Abbreviations|''HALOT'']] sub גדד.</ref> However, "fortune" seems a more likely name for a city that "troop."
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The biblical noun ''gĕdȗd'', "band, troop," is a possibility for this [[Geographical Name|GN]].<ref>The [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] verb ''gdd'' apparently is a denominative from this primary noun and means "to band together." See [[Abbreviations|''HALOT'']] sub גדד.</ref> However, "fortune" seems a more likely name for a city that "troop."
  
Less likely, though not impossible is the biblical [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] word for "coriander," ''gad'', mentioned in [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ex/16.31?lang=eng#30 Exodus 16:31]. For an example of a Near Eastern GN coming from a plant, see the Arabic GN Ras Shamra, "cape fennel" ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]).
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Less likely, though not impossible is the biblical [[HEBREW|H<small>EBREW</small>]] word for "coriander," ''gad'', mentioned in [http://www.lds.org/scriptures/ot/ex/16.31?lang=eng#30 Exodus 16:31]. For an example of a Near Eastern [[Geographical Name|GN]] coming from a plant, see the Arabic [[Geographical Name|GN]] Ras Shamra, "cape fennel" ([[Jo Ann Hackett|JH]]).
  
 
If Sumerian can be appealed to, the following could be considered. Sumerian <sup>giš</sup>GADA = Akkadian ''kitû'' "flax, linen (clothing)," as in GADA.LUGAL, ''kitû šarri'', "byssus."<ref>Cochavi-Rainey, ''Akkadian Dialect of Egyptian Scribes'', 16.</ref> Cf. also Sumerian <sup>lú</sup>GAD, = Akkadian ''pētû'', "door-keeper."<ref>[[Abbreviations|''MZ'']], #157 (p. 285); ''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago.'' (Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.) "K" 475b; [[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''AHw'']], 861b.</ref>
 
If Sumerian can be appealed to, the following could be considered. Sumerian <sup>giš</sup>GADA = Akkadian ''kitû'' "flax, linen (clothing)," as in GADA.LUGAL, ''kitû šarri'', "byssus."<ref>Cochavi-Rainey, ''Akkadian Dialect of Egyptian Scribes'', 16.</ref> Cf. also Sumerian <sup>lú</sup>GAD, = Akkadian ''pētû'', "door-keeper."<ref>[[Abbreviations|''MZ'']], #157 (p. 285); ''Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago.'' (Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.) "K" 475b; [[W. Von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch. 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1965–1981.|''AHw'']], 861b.</ref>

Revision as of 18:27, 26 September 2014

Lehite GN 1. City, burned with fire at the time of the Crucifixion, along with LAMAN, JOSH, and KISHKUMEN (3 Nephi 9:10)

Etymology

It is likely that this NEPHITE hapax legomenon GN comes from the PN of the first person who settled the city (see Alma 8:7). The root gad in HEBREW means "fortune, luck, riches, etc.," and is quite common in HEBREW, including the PN gād, one of the twelve sons of JACOB (ISRAEL).[1]The (deified) word appears in biblical PNs, e.g., Gaddiel (perhaps, "My fortune is El") in Numbers 13:5, and in extra-biblical HEBREW texts close to the time of LEHI (JAT).[2]

The biblical noun gĕdȗd, "band, troop," is a possibility for this GN.[3] However, "fortune" seems a more likely name for a city that "troop."

Less likely, though not impossible is the biblical HEBREW word for "coriander," gad, mentioned in Exodus 16:31. For an example of a Near Eastern GN coming from a plant, see the Arabic GN Ras Shamra, "cape fennel" (JH).

If Sumerian can be appealed to, the following could be considered. Sumerian gišGADA = Akkadian kitû "flax, linen (clothing)," as in GADA.LUGAL, kitû šarri, "byssus."[4] Cf. also Sumerian GAD, = Akkadian pētû, "door-keeper."[5]

Cf. Book of Mormon GID, AMGID, AMNIGADDAH, GADIANDI, GADIANTON, GADIOMNAH, et al.

Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐘𐐈𐐔 (ɡæd)

Notes


  1. The King James Bible disguises the meaning of JACOB's son's name by rendering Genesis 30:11 (the first time the personal name appears in the Bible), "And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad." The Matthew Bible (1537) is more accurate, "Then said Lea: Good luck: and called his name Gad." A more literal translation might be, "And Leah said, 'By good fortune!' And she called his name Gad." (See HALOT sub גד.) The name for troop/band in biblical HEBREW is gĕdȗd, a close homophone (in Semitic languages) of gad.
  2. See Shmuel Ahitub, Echoes from the Past: HEBREW and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period (Jerusalem: Carta, 2008), 503, for the names גד, גדיו, גדעזר.
  3. The HEBREW verb gdd apparently is a denominative from this primary noun and means "to band together." See HALOT sub גדד.
  4. Cochavi-Rainey, Akkadian Dialect of Egyptian Scribes, 16.
  5. MZ, #157 (p. 285); Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. (Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.) "K" 475b; AHw, 861b.