GIMGIMNO

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Lehite GN 1. NEPHITE city of, which sank into the earth (3 Nephi 9:8)

Etymology

This may be related to ancient EGYPTIAN gmgm “smash, tear up, break,”[1] (cf. Coptic demdom “strong,” from which the PN in EGYPTIAN Arabic Jamjūn/Gamgūm),[2] gbgb “cast down, kill enemy; be lame,” gbgbw “headlong (flight)”[3] > Coptic *čobčb, čbčōb=[4]; or Demotic and Coptic kmkm “strike; drum”[5]; or refer to EGYPTIAN GN Gmgm.w (with foreign-land determinative), which appears in the “Prophecy of the Lamb” in Demotic Papyrus Vienna 10,000, column 2, which Robert Ritner interprets as “the foreign powers,”[6] and which may be the same place suggested by Nibley as the “City-of-Gimgim,” citing EGYPTIAN Kenkeme, or Gibgib/Kipkip, the capital of the Nubian dynasty of EGYPT (whence King Paanchi flees).[7] That, together with the EGYPTIAN word niwt “city, town, village”(= Nō’ , in HEBREW Nōʾ-ʿĀmôn, “City of Amon/ Thebes/ Diopolis” [ Nahum 3:8; Ezekiel 30:14-16 =Niwt rst; =WЗst with “city” determinative], or Greek Naukratis[8]). With EGYPTIAN No appended, we could account for the partial etymology of this geographical name.

One might also compare Akkadian gumgumšu, a type of altar = Sumerian GI.GÚM.GÚM.ŠÚ.A.[9]

See AMMON, HERMOUNTS, KIM, MANTI, PAANCHI.

Variants

Deseret Alphabet: 𐐖𐐆𐐣𐐖𐐆𐐣𐐤𐐄 (dʒɪmdʒɪmnoʊ)

Notes


  1. Faulkner, Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, 289; gm is translated as “control” (Coptic čom “strength, power”) by R. Ritner in “Setna II,” in W. K. Simpson, ed., Literature of Ancient Egypt (2003), 481 and n. 25; cf. EGYPTIAN dbdb “crush by treading” (Černý, Coptic Etymological Dictionary, 318, citing Crum 743a).
  2. Youssef, From Pharaoh’s Lips, 111.
  3. Adolf Erman and Hermann Grapow. Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, vol. 5 (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1926-1931.), 165.; Raymond O. Faulkner. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. (Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1962), 289.
  4. Wolfhart Westendorf, Koptische Handwörterbuch (Heidelberg: C. Winter Universitätsverlag, 1965), 447.
  5. Černý, Coptic Etymological Dictionary, 58 (citing Crum 109a); Westendorf, KHw, 64; cf. EGYPTIAN kmkm, qmqm “drum.”
  6. Translated by Ritner in W. K. Simpson, ed., The Literature of Ancient Egypt, 3rd ed., 448.
  7. Nibley, Lehi in the Deseret, 1st ed., 28 = Lehi in the Desert, 2nd ed., CWHN V:2,23,26. Cf. Eg. gbgbw “headlong (of flight); prostrate” (Faulkner, CDME, 289).
  8. Gardiner, Alan H. Egyptian Grammar, 3rd ed. Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1957.
  9. Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010., 5 (“G”), 133.

Bibliography


CAD = Chicago Assyrian Dictionary = Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the Univ. of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute/Glückstadt: J. J. Augustin, 1956-2010.

Černý, Jaroslav. Coptic Etymological Dictionary. London: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1976.

Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow. Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, 5 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1926-1931. Wb.

Faulkner, Raymond O. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1962. CDME

Gardiner, Alan A. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, 3rd ed. Oxford, 1957.

Nibley, Hugh W. Lehi in the Desert and the World of the Jaredites, 1st ed. SLC: Bookcraft, 1952. = 2nd ed., CWHN V. Provo: FARMS/ SLC: Deseret Book, 1988. LID

Ritner, Robert K. in W. K. Simpson, ed., The Literature of Ancient Egypt, 3rd ed. Yale Univ. Press, 2003.

Westendorf, Wolfhart. Akkadisches Handwӧrterbuch. Heidelberg: C. Winter Univ., 2008.

Youssef, Ahmad Abdel-Hamid. From Pharaoh’s Lips: Ancient Egyptian Language in the Arabic of Today. Cairo: American Univ. of Cairo Press, 2003.

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