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Pearl of Great Price PN 1. ELKENAH, god of (Book of Abraham facsimile 1:3-4, and BofA 1:6, 2:13)

From Hebrew PN ʼEl-qanah “God has possessed,[1] created”[2] (Exodus 6:24, 1 Samuel 1:1,4), and Hebrew DN ʼEl-qoneh “El, Creator of the Earth,” hypocoristicon for formula ’El ˁElyon qone šamayim wa’areṣ “God Most High, Creator of Heaven & Earth” (Genesis 14:19, 22, Acts 4:24; cf. with Yahweh Exodus 20:11, 2 Chronicles 2:11-12, Isaiah 42:5)[3] = Aramaic ʼl qn(ˁ)rˁ(ˁ), Aramaic & Neo-Punic ʼl qn ʼrṣ = 1200 B.C. Hittite El-qônê-erṣi (El-ku-ni-ir-ša), late Hittite Elkoners.[4] The Egyptian equivalent would have been qmЗ wnnt “creator of that which is.”[5] Name of one of the four canopic gods (Egyptian jackal-headed Qbḥ-śnw.f of the east).[6]

South Human ʼImśti KORASH
North Baboon Ḥpy MAHMACKRAH
West Jackal Qbḥ-śnw.f LIBNAH
East Falcon DwЗ-mwt.f ELKENAH

Variants: Elkkener, Elk Kener, Elk-keenah, Elk-kee-nah.


  1. B. M. Metzger, ed., “Topical Index to the Bible,” 64.
  2. R. Youngblood, “Elkanah,” in Freedman, ed., Anchor Bible Dictionary, II:476, from root qny.
  3. Cf. the 700 B.C. Jerusalem ostracon with ['l] qn 'rṣ "[El] Creator of the Earth" (Cross, From Epic to Canon, 87 n. 8, citing N. Avigad, IEJ, 22 [1972], 195 pl. 42B; Patrick Miller, “El, The Creator of the Earth,” BASOR, 239 [Summer 1980]:43-46).
  4. Miller, “El, The Creator of the Earth,” BASOR, 239 (Summer 1980):43-46, comparing 1200 B.C. Hittite Il Kunirsha, and Aramaic and Neo-Punic ʾl qnʾrṣ. W. F. Albright felt that this reflected Canaanite El-kunirša, ’El-qone-’erṣi on the Hittite tablet (El-ku-ni-ir-ša pronounced ’Elqonrs "El-Creator-of-the-Earth," Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan [London, 1968], 46,107 [late Hittite Elkoners]; R.J. Clifford, CBQ, 33:222; A. Goetze in Pritchard, ed., ANET, 3rd ed., 519). See also Conrad E. L’Heureux, Rank Among the Canaanite Gods: El, Dagan, and the Rephaim, Harvard Semitic Monograph 21 (Missoula: Scholars Press, 1979); E. Theodore Mullen, Jr., The Assembly of the Gods: The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature, Harvard Semitic Monograph 2 (Chico: Scholars Press, 1980).
  5. Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, I:382, line 8.
  6. See now Kevin Barney, “On Elkenah as Canaanite El,” JBMS, 19/1 (2010):22-35; Daniel O. McClellan, “El Elyon, Begetter of Heaven and Earth,” SBL Paper, March 2010 (see pdf).